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Rural Technology Park


The Rural Technology Park of National Institute of Rural Development and Panchayati Raj, Hyderabad has been established with a view to uplifting the rural people in all aspects of life such as capacity building, rural employment generation and livelihood etc. It is established in an area of 65 acres of land with a scope to envisage for transfer of technology through live demonstrations. The development of RTP has been dived into various categories to cater to the needs of the rural people.


  • Live demonstration/dissemination of cost-effective, local resource based and environment friendly technologies of different sectors of Rural Development
  • Provide functional exposure to replicable models to meet location-specific, season-specific and social contextual needs
  • Promote participative-cum-partnership collaboration between frontline / forward demonstration teams, other official and NGO institutions of NIRDPR
  • Facilitate transfer of technologies to users and help improve the operational skills to produce high quality products
  • Link users and institutions (PRIs, NGOs, CBOs) with technology developer / suppliers

RTP-NIRDPR- is a place, where a variety of models of rural technologies are showcased with practical demonstration, in other words Training cum Production Centre. RTP spread across 65 acres in NIRDPR. RTP is an instrument in disseminating appropriate and affordable rural technologies to villages through dynamic approach. RTP is run on Partnership basis with the active participation of individual entrepreneurs, NGOs and government agencies. The guiding principles of RTP include use of local resources, cost-effectiveness, eco-friendly and blending tradition with modern technologies. Rural Housing, Renewable energy and natural resource management and Skill development & Promotion of entrepreneurship.


  • Adoption of technologies
  • Employment Generation
  • Women Empowerment
  • Enhancement of Economic Status
  • Poverty Reduction
  • Sustainable development

National Rural Building Centre


The National Building Centre in RTP brings together a range of cost-effective construction technologies with variety of materials, technologies and blends the old and new techniques of construction. The technologies depicted are suitable for disaster-prone locations viz., earthquake, cyclone, fire etc. These structures are erected utilising the locally available resources and skills of the people. The cost of construction will be in the range of 25% 40% less than that of the cost with conventional construction at that particular place. The variation of cost is depending on the soil typology and locally available resources. Over 40 technologies are depicted in the 15 structures in this centre. All these structures are eco-friendly and environment-friendly with green building concept.

Training programmes are conducted through this unit in the assembling of a Solar lantern, street lights and in the installation and management of the street lights and guiding/assisting in the establishment of solar lantern assembling units in the rural areas.

Rural Sanitation Park

Appropriate low cost-low water sanitation models (23 nos.) have been placed in the RTP with the focus on three areas vis. Low cost; low water usage; and solid and liquid waste disposal for gainful agricultural & for other activities.


  1. Waterless Urinals Technology
  2. Bio-Toilets

Water Harvesting Technologies

Established water harvesting structures by adopting the technologies such as construction of funds, tanks, field channels, contour trenching, staggered trenching, gully control structures etc., to harvest the rain water besides the showcasing of roof water harvesting.

Solar Energy

A solar house has been set up in Rural Technology Park to propagate and transfer the solar technologies like assembling of solar lanterns, home lighting systems and street lighting etc., to the rural areas. A number of villages have been electrified with solar home lighting system by the RTP in the most in-accessible areas of Andhra Pradesh, Odisha, Haryana, Bihar, Telangana and Chhattisgarh . In addition to the solar energy development, wind energy is also established in RTP as a part of the renewable energy development. A 5 KW solar power unit and 3.65 KW of wind power units have been set up and the power is being used for the office premises.

Biogas Plant

Biogas originates from bacteria in the process of bio-degradation of organic material under anaerobic (without air) conditions. In the absence of oxygen, anaerobic bacterial decompose organic matter and produce a gas mainly composed of methane (60%) and carbon dioxide called biogas. This gas can be compared to natural gas which is 99% methane. There are two kinds of biogas plants, KVIC model-1 unit and Balaji model-2. The innovative biogas technology was installed at RTP with the technical collaboration of Centre of Science for Villages (CSV), Wardha. The biogas models are being used for demonstration and production of bio-gas being used for electricity generation and cooking purpose.

Rural Technology Entrepreneurship

To build the capacity of rural entrepreneurs through training and skill promotion in various eco-friendly and employment intensive industries like Handmade papers, Natural Dyeing, Home based products, Honey processing, Neem processing, Cultivation of Medicinal & Aromatic plants, Food processing, Vermicomposting, fashion technology & garments making, pearls processing, Soybean foods, Herbal Cosmetics etc. These prototype units are housed in the Rural Technology Park and through them transfer of technologies to the rural areas are made to generate employment on a sustainable basis. Training programmes are conducted as a capacity building to the rural entrepreneurs.

Technology Units

Cost Effective Rural Housing Technologies
Cost Effective Rural Housing Technologies

Housing is central to enhancement of quality of life for accessing all basic amenities like drinking water & sanitation, heath, education, lighting/ electricity, connectivity, livelihoods etc. Conventionally rural habitants prefer to build houses with locally available materials such as Mud ,thatch, bamboo, and stones that are the cheapest with their house building skills and indigenous knowledge relating to the aspects of availability, utility, workability, cost and durability.

The National Institute of Rural Development & Panchayati Raj (NIRD&PR), in Hyderabad established Rural Building Centre in RTP, which acts as a platform for exhibiting the most important field tested, flooring, walling and roofing technological options that are marked by feasibility of construction in rural areas blending old and new techniques, acceptance by various diverse social groups, and cost effective, stable & durable models withstanding the vagaries of monsoons, various geo-climatic conditions and disaster prone locations viz., Earth Quake, Cyclones, Floods and Fire across rural India and resistant even in multi hazard conditions. The Rural Building Centre was further developed and strengthened by taking in to consideration the different typologies that are existing across the length and breadth of the country for specific typologies of Himalayan, Sikkim, North eastern side housing typologies like Bamboo walling structures (which is also called as Ekra walling, Wardha type of houses in Central India and the famous Laurie Baker designs from Habitat in South India. The plans of the structures are replicable to the typology of the concerned region.

These structures so developed save the cost of construction the extent of 25 to 40% less than the conventional costs. However, the actual variation of the cost saving depended on the type of typology as indicated above.

The list of Technologies Adopted in the Construction at RTP

  1. Arch Foundations
  2. Rat – Trap bonding brick work for walling
  3. R R Stone Masonry Walling in Super structure
  4. C C blocks walling
  5. Fly ash bricks
  6. Adobe Mud Blocks & Tile facing Adobe Mud blocks walls.
  7. Cement stabilized mud blocks
  8. Rammed earth walling and columns
  9. Wattle & Daub walling
  10. Mud walling
  11. C R Stone masonry
  12. Hollow concrete Blocks
  13. Mangalore tile roofing
  14. Conical tile arch roofing
  15. Filler slab
  16. Arch roofing
  17. Micro concrete tile roofing
  18. Ferro – Cement Channel roofing
  19. Brick Dome roof
  20. Ferro cement arch roofing
  21. Bamboo corrugated sheet roofing
  22. Pre cast RCCpanels over pre cast joists
  23. Mud plastering to the mud block walls
  24. Non-erode able mud plaster to the walls
  25. Lime plaster
  26. Corbelling windows lintel
  27. Bamboo paneled doors and windows
  28. Shabad stone flooring
Rural Sanitation
Rural Sanitation

In due recognition to the importance the sanitation is attached in enhancing the quality of rural life, appropriate low cost-low water sanitation devices were showcased in the Rural Technology Park as a part of the National Rural Building Centre. Each model designed, developed and established to demonstrate something special, either in respect of localavailability of the materials or adoption of a particular practice or a technique to save either water or environment. The focus was essentially on three areas: low cost; low water usage; and, most importantly, solid and liquid disposal for gainful agricultural activities. Besides, designing pans with locally available building materials,altering the slope of pans,redesigned sanitation pans weredeveloped to enhance the efficiency. The two–pit system that facilities safe recycling of liquid and solid waste for gainful agriculture practices was also showcased. The models have been grouped broadly under the following heads;

  1. Conventional toilet system
  2. Domestic sanitation models with the use of cost effective construction materials
  3. School sanitation model
  4. Aganwadi sanitation model
  5. Community model
  6. Waste water management
  7. Animal waste management
  8. Solid waste management

The models displayed in the park provided useful insights for rural development functionaries, NGOs and all others participating in various programs organized in the institute, who are involved in planning and implementation of sanitation schemes in rural areas. This will help the trainees and visitors to understand the relative merits and demerits of the conventional sanitation model-septic tank-other models to enable comparative evaluation.

The following are the different types of Sanitation Models available in Rural Sanitation Park.

  1. Conventional Model Based on Septic Tank
  2. Two Pit latrine with Flap Seal Pan and Brick Work
  3. Twin Pit Latrine with Brick Panel
  4. Twin Pit Latrine with Pre cast concrete blocks
  5. Circular twin pit toilet with bricks
  6. Circular twin pit toilet with pre cast RCC rings
  7. Bamboo Mat Ply Superstructure
  8. Bamboo Reinforced Leach Pit
  9. Single Leach Pit Toilet with P-Trap Pan
  10. Burnt Clay Segment Leach Pit
  11. Modified Midnapur Toilet
  12. Eco-Sanitation Toilet
  13. Anganwadi Toilet Block
  14. School Sanitation Toilet Block Model
  15. Community Toilet & Urinal Block
  16. Soak Pit for Bathroom Platform
  17. Spill Water Recycling Model
  18. Household Vermi Compost Unit
  19. Nadep Compost Unit
  20. Deenbandhu Biogas Plant with Toilet
  21. Gappi Fist Tank
Solar Energy Workshop
Solar Energy Workshop The solar initiative at the National Institute of Rural Development & Panchayati Raj (NIRD&PR)

The solar energy unit , as part of renewable energy park, has been established at the NIRD to facilitate solar energy technology transfer in collaboration with Social Work Research Centre (SWRC), Tilonia, Rajasthan. SWRC trained four illiterate women at Tilonia in fabricating, wiring and setting up solar energy systems. After completion of their training, these women established the rural energy workshop at the rural technology park at NIRD as a production cum training and maintenance facility. They fabricated 100 solar lanterns including assembling of PCBs. Alongside, they installed a 5 KWP solar generating unit.

The uniqueness of this initiative at NIRD is that it has shown that even illiterate women can be trained in the production, operation and maintenance of the solar energy systems. In fact, where rural communities have been trained and given competencies to maintain the systems at the village level only, particularly women, the solar energy facility extension has pvoved successful and sustainable.

Project Undertaken

In Andhra Pradesh two tribal villages namely Pusulapalem and Thamingula of Paderu mandal, visakhapatnam district were identified for transfer of solar energy technology.

Solar Lighting Products Unit

Realizing the importance of providing access to affordable and reliable energy especially in the rural areas NIRD has taken up the mission of propagating solar energy so as to promote lighting up the rural areas where there is no proper grid power availability.

In this effort NIRD has identified in the 12th Rural Technology and crafts Mela a manufacturing unit namely Thrive Solar Energy Private Limited Hyderabad (an ISO 9001:2008 Company, crisil rated and a direct channel partner of MNRE) which has been working in this field and promoting affordable solar lighting products and the unit of the said company is established in Rural Technology Park under PPP arrangement. Through this unit NIRD is providing awareness and training to the interested persons specially one from the rural areas in the assembling of the solar lighting products and in the maintenance of solar street lights etc. This unit in RTP is one of the attractions for all those visiting NIRD RTP and serving the objectives of RTP i.e propagating the benefits of solar energy and helping the people in the adoption of Green Energy.

Solar Freezers, Dehydrators & Power Generation Unit

Realizing the need for promoting value based agricultural products to help the farmers in getting better income for the agricultural produce and to save the fishermen from the disaster of fish catched RTP has been making efforts for establishment of dehydration devices. In this process in the 12th Rural Technology Mela identified Teewave Powertech Private Limited which has been working on said technologies and got their unit established at RTP under PPP arrangement.

It is a technology oriented company concentrating mainly on Solar freezers, solar dehydrators to up-lift the standard of living of tribal and rural population and fishermen, Thermo electric power generating devises producing power from waste heat of cooking stoves mainly for rural electrification.

It also a manufacturer of a special life improvement ESCD carbide coating devise to improve the life of agricultural implements for the benefit of farmers.

The main concept of the technology is to avoid wastage of agricultural produce at farm level by introducing solar freezers to preserve agri produce from decay, to preserve catch fish and to produce hygiene dry fish for fishermen using solar dehydrators and to transport vegetables, fruits, fresh fish etc in solar reefer trucks.

Considering the lack of power supply in rural and tribal areas, the concept of hybrid solar- thermo electric power generating systems using the waste heat from cooking stoves helps in providing a self generated small power to meet the lighting requirement without depending on the grid power.

Through this unit the farmers, fisherman and entrepreneurs are expose to the various solar dehydration technologies and impart training in the same through the unit besides propagating the technology of power generation through waste heat.

Solar Home Lighting and Street Lighting Products – Making and Assembly Unit

Solar Photovoltaics (SPV) helps in converting solar energy directly into electrical energy. Photons (an atomicparticle) present in solar rays striking the atoms of semi conducting solar devices free its electrons. This leads to the flow of free electrons i.e. electrical current.

  1. Solar Modules making plant
  2. Solar LED lights making plant
  3. Solar pumping plant
  4. Lowest cost solar module manufacturing

Machinery Required

S.No Activity / Project Proposed Machines & Equipment
1 Solar LED lighting division
Pick and Place machine for PCB components mounting
Study Lights Reflow machine for PCB components
Mini Lights Screen Printing and fibre laser machine
Street Lights Testing equipment
Home Lighting Systems Epoxy resin Unit Ovens
Soldering Irons, Oscilloscopes, All necessary tools
2 Solar Modules making division
Laser Cutting machine
Tabbing,Stringing & Layup equipment
Lamination machine, Module Tester
Module Framing & Cutting Machine
3 Structure fabrications
Welding machine
Sheet Bending machine, Pipe bending m/c, Pipe Cutting m/c
Hand Made Paper
Hand Made Paper

The Handmade paper manufacturing enterprise has emerged as one of the important livelihood options in rural India. Handmade paper is a layer of entwined fibers and held together by the natural bonding properties of cellulose fibers.

The handmade paper industry has emerged as one of the important livelihood options for the rural people. The technology is simple, successful and quite easy. It is based on the recycling of all waste material through user – cum – gender friendly process thereby can provide livelihoods for the rural poor. From the handmade paper, simple value addition gives a good profit returns.

Raw Material: Cotton rags, hosiery cuttings, Silk rags and handmade paper waste and agro wastes, such as banana, jute, and mulberry are required to make handmade paper. Since the inputs are mostly raw material wastes, it is low cost and eco-friendly industry.

Finished Products: Some of the items produced in the Hand Made Paper Making and Paper Conversion unit includes stationary, note books, scribbling pads, file covers, folders, carry bags, visiting and invitation cards, gifts and novelties like albums, photo frames and gift boxes, lamp shades, wall papers etc.

Machinery Required: includes Beater, Screw Press, Calendar Machine, Sheet Former, Cutting Machine, Hydraulic Press, Vat Machine.


Activities Work Content
Sorting & Dusting Raw material sorted by hand to remove foreign particles to avoid contamination of the pulp
Rag Chopping The sorted out raw – materials are chopped either manually or by mechanized rag chopper
Beating The chopped rags are converted into a fine pulp in a Hollander beater and mixed with water and adhesives
Sheet formation The pulp is transferred in to a vat
Couching The wet paper sheet then transferred onto a cloth or felt pieces of fabric
Pressing The wet paper is then pressed under a press to take out the water from inside the paper
Drying & Finishing The paper after so pressed is dried under sum and is then finished to smooth
Packaging cleaning and sizing After drying, the sheets are inspected and the dust particles are removed
Calendaring This process is done to make the paper smooth
Cutting Finally the sheets are cut in required sizes – Normal size is 22” x 30”
Natural Dying
Natural Dying

Enterprise based on natural dyes of plant origin , emerged as a popular promising eco-friendly livelihood option for many of the weavers and rural artisans. Natural Dyes are derived from naturally occurring sources like vegetables, flowers, fruits, rinds, seeds, branches, plants with a very little chemical processing. But now the market and the tastes of people are changing fast and the hazards to chemical dyes have forced environmentalist to think in terms of natural products.

Details of Important Natural Dyes (Vegetable Dyes)

S.No Botanical Name English Name Hindi Name Part Used Colour obtained Materials used for dyeing
1 Acacia catechu Catechu Katha Extract of wood Brown Silk, Wool, Leather, Cotton, Bamboo, Kora-green and other fibres
2 Indigo-fera tinctoria Indigo Neeli Leaves Extraction Blue Silk, Wool, Leather, Cotton, Bamboo, Kora-green and other fibres
3 Mallotus Philippinesis Kamal Kapila Dust on the Capsule of Fruit Dark Yellow to Orange Silk and Wool
4 Onosmos echiodies Ratanjoth Ratanjoth Bark Grey Silk, Wool, Leather, fibres Cotton, Bamboo, Kora-green, and food stuffs
5 Punica granatum Pomegranate Anar Rind Yellow, Khaki, and Black Silk,Wool,Leather, fibres Cotton, Bamboo, Kora-green, and food stuffs
6 Rubia cordifolia Madder Manjista Root Red Silk,Wool,Leather, fibres Cotton, Bamboo, Kora-green, and food stuffs


The dye material is always powdered well, to facilitate proper and maximum extraction. The required dye material is always soaked overnight, before extraction. On the next day this material is added to the required quantity of water & boiled for about 30 to 40 minutes. The pre -treated yarn is taken in damp condition, immersed into boiling hot dye extract & worked thoroughly for 45 minutes to an hour. A strict watch is maintained while dyeing to obtain a uniform & even shade, maintaining a constant temperature. The yarn is constantly rotated up & down in the dye bath with the help of two wooden or bamboo rods. After this the yarn is removed, excess water is squeezed & is dried in the shade. This dyeing process time takes about 40 to 45 minutes. The dye house is equipped to dye 100 kgs of yarn. The production orders come from DAMA producer groups and few master weavers.

Material used for Dyeing

Silk, Wool, Leather, Cotton, Bamboo, Kora-green and other fibres Silk, wool silk and food stuff silk.

Machinery Required

Reaction vessel SS 304, Frames, Cutting Machine, Trays, Boiler run on bio-diesel/brickets, Manual stamping machine, Manual wrapping machine, water softener and laboratory equipment

Vermi Composting & Culture


Vermi composting being a Bio-fertilizer emerged as one of the promising livelihood option providing soil fertility Improvements, better nutrient recycling , ecological security , nutritional security, and livelihood security on the way to the achievement of sustainable rural development through promotion of organic farming . Vermi compost is organic manure for all types of crops and plantations and is the fecal matter appearing as dark-brownish granular material, which is odorless, excreted by earthworms, after consuming and digesting bio degradable wastes cow dung, agro-waste, kitchen waste etc. Average Nutrient Content (% of Dry Matter) of Vermi Compost being 1.60 (Nitrogen) 1.32 (Phosphorous) 0.67 (Potassium).

Vermi compost is a preferred nutrient source for organic farming. Vermi compost is an organic manure (bio-fertilizer) which can be produced by earth worm feeding on biological waste material plant residues. It is eco-friendly, non-toxic, consumes low energy input for composting and is a recycled biological product. This can be adopted by the village community as an additional income source and manure for their own crops.


Vermi culture: Process of multiplying earthworms

Vermi compost: Fecal matter appearing as dark – brownish granular material, which is odorless, excreted by earthworms, after consuming and digesting bio degradable wastes cow dung, agro waste, kitchen waste etc.,

Vermi wash: liquid produced through the use of earthworms, which contains micronutrients and hormones, used as foliar spray.

Application / Use

  1. Vermi compost is organic manure for all types of crops and plantations
  2. Vermin wash as foliar spray for all types of crops and plantations
  3. Faster production of manure in a year (3-4 times more) than conventional methods of composting
  4. Regular use improves soil health, fertility, structure (makes soil loose and arable and facilitates better aeration and drainage even in heavy clay soils) and creates favorable conditions for healthy plant growth and development
  5. Used as a carrier medium for bio fertilizers
  6. Complete and balanced plant food. Improves crop yield and quality
  7. Meets increasing demand for naturally grown food products

Average Nutrient Content (% of Dry Matter)

Vermi Compost 1.60(Nitrogen) 1.32 (Phosphorous) 0.67 (Potassium)

Production Process

Pretreatment of Composting Material
  1. Avoid fresh cow dung, green leaves or any part of living plant, which is hard. Shredding is recommended for hard matter. Avoid non-bio degradable material, such as, polythene bags, plastics, glass, etc.
  2. Use only partly decaying or partly digested organic matter as feed substrate for worms
  3. Add cattle dung up to 50% to provide bacterial inoculation for enhancing decomposition
  4. Spread in alternate layers of dung and leaf litter or any organic waste
  5. Partial decomposition in open area in a pit/heap is strongly recommended
  6. Periodic watering quickens partial decomposition
  7. 4-5 weeks required for partial decomposition
Formation of Bed

Spread a 10 cms thick layer of decomposable organic matter such as grasses, coconut fiber, sugarcane waste etc as bedding material.

Spread partially decomposed cattle dung and organic waste or dry biogas slurry on top of the bedding layer in an inverted ‘U’ shape till a height of 0.75 m

Regular watering to keep it damp all the time

Impregnating / Maintenance of the Bed

Do not impregnate or thrust worms into active compost. They will be killed due to heating process

Wait for 2-3 weeks till the bed is cooled

Release worms on top of the bed in a shallow furrow @ 1000 per 1 sq.m of bed space and cover it thoroughly with compost

Sprinkle water: Always keep the surface layer of the bed moist, but not soggy

Spread on the top of layer of the bed, a long gunny cloth 4ft wide to cover the heap

Always maintain favorable moisture and cool conditions. Moisture level 40 to 50%. Temperature 25 to 40 degrees Celsius

One earth worm increases to 300 in one year

Earth worms prefer nitrogen rich diet-Azolla, an aquatic water fern. 100 to 200 grams per each cubic meter once in a month helps in rapid multiplication

Excess water flooding – will be harmful

Harvesting of Compost

First lot may take 90 days

Subsequent cycle may take only 35 to 45 days depending on the density of worms

Stop watering before 2 days of harvesting. Allow earth worms to burrow into the bottom before taking out the compost

The finished compost then heaped in conical shapes piles on the surface of the bed

Collect the top portion of the pile in stages using hands. Sieve before packing

Vermi Culture

It is a culture basket prepared to multiply the worms. Earthworms are maintained in a small tank or basket. These baskets should contain mixed old compost and soil.

Vermi Wash

Vermi wash can be made in plastic or mud or cement container having attached tap system to remove water and this container should be approximately ten to twenty litres capacity. It is filled as follows:-

Layer one: Bricks and Pebbles

Layer Two: Soil and old Compost

Third Layer: Green leaves or Kitchen waste

Earthworms are later introduced into the container

Water droplets are added at the top through a pot. Earth worms make top to down movement which creates holds in the substances through which the water passes and get settled at bottom. The same could be collected as vermi wash

Bacillus Thuringiensis

Indiscriminate use of chemical pesticides has led to the problems of pest resistance, soil ill heath , advancement of minor pest to major pest due to the death of natural enemies, and high levels of environmental pollution corrupting the food chain as well as natural resources base . The growing concern of these problems led to popularization of the concept of Integrated Pest Management (IPM) in which biological agents play a very important role owing to their host-specific and eco-friendly nature. Of these, Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) accounts for 95% of the world market of microbial pest control agents due to the twin advantages of safety to natural enemies, honey bees etc. and its rapid action against target insect pests. It is highly effective against several lepidopteran pests of economic importance.

Mode of Action of Bt.

Bacillus thuringiensis is a soil bacterium which produces a crystal toxin during its growth and multiplication. The crystal toxin on ingestion by the insect larvae gets dissolved in the alkaline gut juice and broken down by the enzymes to release the active toxin. This active toxin binds to the cells lining the gut and causes rupture of the cells. The larva stops feeding within few hours and dies within 2-5 days. Bt is available commercially under the trade names Dipel, Halt, Delfin etc., and is recommended as a foliar spray. Bt can withstand higher temperatures and can be used like any other normal insecticide. The potential of Bt in insect pest management is amply proven with commercial Bt formulations. However large scale exploitation in pest management has not gained momentum due to the prohibitive cost and restricted availability of the commercially available products particularly so far a crop of low income returns.

Advantages of Bt. based bio-pesticides

Are target specific and efficacious

Ecologically safe with no toxicity to humans, animals and non target insects including beneficial insects at the recommended doses.

Easy to use with conventional sprayers

Ensure Consistent Performance in various ecologically diverse habitats and pose no significant resistance problems.

Non phytotoxic, biodegradable and do not pollute the environment

CompaTRIBAL with other control methods including chemical treatments, natural parasites and predators thereby forming an important component in integrated pest management.

Bacillus thuringiensis in the management of insect pests

Two to three sprays of Bt (at a dose 1.0 – 1.5 g/l depending on the stage of the larva) at 10 days interval should be undertaken for the management of castor semilooper based on the pest incidence. For best results, sprays should be undertaken when the larvae are in 2nd or 3rd instar. For management of H.armigera on red gram, three sprays of Bt. (2.5g/l) need to be undertaken from initiation of flowering at 10 days interval.


Trichogramma parasitized eggs safely packed in packets, serve as bio-pesticides offering tremendous livelihood options in promotion of organic product manufacturing, pollution control, ecological restoration, enhancement of soil fertility providing livelihood security, food safety , nutritional security leading to sustainable rural development. There is a great demand for the organic food products both nationally and internationally as they fetch whose profits to the entrepreneurs.

Pests and diseases that attack crops cause 20-90 per cent loss in yield, when conditions are favorable. Excessive use of synthetic insecticides over the past several decades has resulted in development of resistance in insect pests to commonly used insecticides, resurgence of minor pests to major pests and thereby posing a serious problem in their management. Therefore, the need for adopting integrated pest management (IPM) is gaining importance. Release of trichogramma egg parasitoids is one of the important components in IPM. Trichogramma egg parasitoids are effective on several lepidopteran pests viz., bollworms, pod borers, stem borers, leaf eating caterpillars, hairy caterpillars etc.

Mode of supply

Supplied as parasitized host (corcyra cephalonica) eggs as “ Trichocards” safely packed in packets, indicating the date of emergence of adult parasitoids. Each trichocard contains 20,000 trichogramma parasitized eggs.

When to release

Commence releasing as soon as the adults of the pests are noticed in he field. Monitoring activity of adult moths is possible using sex pheromone traps or light traps, whichever is available.

How to release

Cut or tear each “Tricho card” in to small pieces and distribute them all over the field. The pieces may be stapled to the under surface of the leaves o placed securely in the leaf sheaths. The parasitoid on emergence disperses in search of host eggs.


Trichogramma must be released prior to egg hatch, hence one would have to accurately predict moth occurrence and egg density to plan parasite release

Avoid using broad spectrum insecticides which are highly toxic to Trichogramma

Crop Stage Pest Trichogramma Species Dosage / Hectar No of Releases
Sugarcane 45-90 days after transplanting Early shoot bores & Stalk borer T.Chilonis 5000 4-6 at 10 days interval
60 days onwards Top shoot borer T.Japonicum 5000 4-6 at 10 days interval
Cotton 45th Day onwards Boll worms T.Chilonis 150000 6 at weekly interval
Maize 45th Day onwards Stem Borer T.Chilonis 75000 6 at 10 days interval
Tomato 45th Days after transplanting Fruit borer T.brasiliensis 50000 6 at weekly interval
Paddy 30 days after transplanting Stem Borer T.Japonicum 50000 6 at weekly interval
Castor 30 days after sowing Semi-looper T.Chilonis 50000 3 at weekly interval


To delay the emergence of adult Trichogramma, Tricho cards can be stored in refrigerator at 10oC for 7 days. On removing the cards to room temperature, the parasitoids complete their development and emerge normally.


  1. A single Trichogramma while multiplying itself can kill over 100 eggs of the pests
  2. Periodical release of Trichogramma results in killing the pest even before they are born
  3. The parasite searches and kills the host eggs which are otherwise inaccessible to conventional insecticidal sprays
  4. Use of tricho cards can bring down the spray of expensive chemical insecticides, and there by avoid the ill effects of pesticides use.
Botanical Pesticides – Neem Seed Processing and Oil Extraction

Neem based enterprises are eco-friendly and are preferred in organic farming and hence gained importance due to safety concerns in food manufacturing industry owing to presence of unprecedented/ toxic levels of pesticides/chemical residues in the food products in addition to enhancing the soil health and fertility. Neem (Azadirachta indica) is not only known for its herbal medicines and environmental friendly organic pesticides. In the agricultural sector, the applications of neem occupied major role for all crops as an important component of organic farming, as an organic pesticide and insecticide in integrated pest management system and organic agriculture.

Neem based pesticides and insecticides help to control the pests by altering their life cycle and feeding habits. The active ingredient of neem extract contains azadirachtin. Pest control using extracts from the Neem. Currently. Neem oil has proved its importance in treating of hair fall, dandruff, lice and early graying of hairs in many countries throughout the world.

Neem Cake has multiple effects on the soil in controlling soil borne fungi, nematodes besides providing nutrition. The effects also last for the subsequent year. Hence, farmers may be encouraged to use Neem cake as much as possible.

Important Target Pests for Neem Products

Crop Pest
Cotton White fly, Aphids, American boll warm, Tobacco caterpiller
Cotton White fly, Aphids, American boll warm, Tobacco caterpiller
Bhendi, Brinjal Green leaf hopper ( Jassids)
Tomato, Cabbage, Cauliflower Common Fruit borer, white fly dimond backmoth, head borer,
Paddy Leaf hppper, brown plant hopper
Ground Nut Leaf minor, tobacco caterpiller
Lemon( Acid lime) Leaf miner,
Mango Mango Hoper
Castor Red Hairy Caterpiller

Mode of application

Neem Oil:

Dosage: 450 ml per acre

Dilution: 5 ml per 1 ltr water

Frequency: twice during crop period

However for better effect and feasibility, first apply leaf extract (neem, seethaphal, karanja, vitex leaves) or Neem Seed solution (Vepa Kashaya). Subsequently, when eggs of pest start appearing, apply neem oil. Ensure the spray reaches both sides of the leaves and stem of the plant.

General Tips for use of Neem Products

Encourage farmers to collect and store neem seed during May-June to meet their requirement during the Kharif season. When the pest incidence is severe, Neem products have to be supplemented with chemical pesticides. Use Neem products preferably in the morning or evening. Use of emulsifier is must when neem oil is used. Use only cold expelled neem oil. Use neem formulations from approved manufacturers only. Neem Cake has multiple effects in the soil in controlling soil borne fungi, nematodes besides providing nutrition. The effects also last for the subsequent year. Hence, farmer should be encouraged to use neem cake as much as possible.

Other Plant Products


Products used julst like Neem

50 gm seed powder in one ltr with emulsifier

Need plus pongamia more effective than individually

Custard apple

Fresh leaf extract (50 gm in one litre)

Seed extract (50 gm in one litre)

Oil 5 ml in one litre

Oil extraction at farmer level not recommended.

Machinery Required: Oil Expeller, Pulverers, Neem Seed Decordicator, Neem Seed Cleaner, Weighing Machine

Viral Pesticides

Viral pesticides are , bio-pesticides that offer tremendous livelihood options in promotion of organic product manufacturing, pollution control, ecological restoration, enhancement of soil fertility providing livelihood security, food safety , nutritional security leading to sustainable rural development. There is a great demand for the organic food products both nationally and internationally .as they fetch whose profits to the entrepreneurs.

Baculo viruses are naturally occurring insect pathogens. Because of their host-specificity and safety to non-target organisms, are ideal candidates for use as microbial insecticides in pest management in several field. Baculo viruses are of two types: NucleoPolyhedro viruses (NPVs) and Granuloviruses (GVs) based on the type of occlusion body formed. Baculo viruses are named on the basis of the host insect species from which they were first isolated. For example, HaNPV, SINPV and AjGV.

Baculoviruses are Eco – friendly

Beculo viruses have no equivalent virus that infects plants or vertebrates. They have been shown to have no negative impacts on plants, mammals, birds, fish, or even on non-target insects (parasites and predators). This is especially desirable when beneficial insects are being conserved to aid in an overall IPM programme, or when an ecologically sensitive area is being treated. This group of viruses is therefore considered safe and ecologically acceptable for use. These viruses are excellent candidates for species – specific narrow spectrum insecticidal applications.

Baculovirus Formulation

Baculoviruses are available as aqueous suspensions in water. The preparation contains known number of occlusion bodies indicated as polyhedral occlusion bodies (POBs) or Polyhedral Inclusion Bodies (PIBs). The storable formulation usually does not contain any other ingredients except the filtered virus prepared from ground diseased larvae. Contaminants, mostly bacteria that are not human pathogens, are present at levels below permissible limits. Baculo virus formulation should be stored under cool dark conditions for prolonged storage upto 1 year to preserve efficacy and quality

Field use recommendations

Baculovirus Type Crop Crop Stage Dosage (LE/hectare) Number of appl. Per crop season
Helicoverpa armigera (gram pod borer / American bollworm)NPV Red gram Flower Initiation, 50% flowering and peak flowering 250-500 2-3 at 10-14 days interval
Chickpea 30 DAS and flowering 250 2-3 at 07-12 days interval
Tomato Fruiting stage 250 3 at 7 days interval
Cotton Fruiting stage 750 1-2 at 10 days interval
Sunflower Flower head 250 1
Groundnut Flowering onwards 250 – 500 3-4 at 7-10 days interval
Spodotera litura (tobacco caterpiller or leaf worm) NPV Tobacco Vegetables Ground nut Cotton Need based 250 – 500 1-3 application at 7-14 days interval
Achaea janata (Semilooper) (GV) Castor 35-75 days after sowing 500 2 sprays first applied between 35-50 days and second at 60-75 days crop age based on pest incidents

Key to effective control

  1. Apply spray in the evening hours to avoid inactivation of virus by sunlight
  2. Use high volume sprayer to wet the plants thoroughly but not to run-off
  3. Ensure that both upper and lower leaf surface are covered with spray
  4. Concentrate the spray on flowers and new growth
  5. Ensure pH of water is neutral and not alkaline

Tank mix additives

  1. Use tank mix additives such as fabric whitener (robin blue/ranipal/tinopal) as UV protectant @ 5ml per tank (10 liter capacity) and jaggery as feeding stimulant @50 g per tank (10 liter capacity). HaNPV application in cotton is effective when mixed with boric acid (3g/l).
  2. Use wetting agent (Apsa or Sandovit or Triton-X -100)@ 5ml for every 15 liters spray fluid
  3. Baculo viruses can be mixed just before spray with fungicides such as mancozeb and copper oxy chloride.

General filed use guidelines

First mix jaggery in about 10 liters of water in a bucket and then add robin blue/tinopal and virus suspension. Mix thoroughly before the spray. The spray synergistically brings down the pest population more quickly and effectively.

Home Based Products
Home Based Products

Home based products are emerged as livelihood option for many of the rural household women being competitive in the market due to insignificant overhead charges. Home-based products include a range of products like sanitary acids, phenyl, scented phenyl, dish wash powder, hand wash liquid, detergent, candle making, agarbathis etc. The technology could be used throughout the year and it’s not seasonal in nature.

Machinery Required: Liquid Mixing Machine, Bottle Filler (2-way Type), Cap Sealing Machine, Powder Mixing Machine (with SS Body, 100 Kg Mixing Capacity, 3HP Motor, Vertical Type Bottom Opening, MS Frame), Cover Sealing Machine (rotary Type), Cover Sealing Machine (Bench Type, Pedastal Operated), Cover Sealing Machine (Hand Type), Mixing Machine (Sigma Type 200 Kg capacity, 7.5 HP Motor, V-Belt Drive, MS Body), Extruder (Plodder, Size-6 Inches, 7.5 HP Motor, MS Body), Power Cutting Machine (0.5 HP Motor, SS Top, MS Frame Bottom with adjustable blades)

Bee Keeping and Honey Processing

Bee Keeping and Honey Processing

Bees collect nectar from flowers and covert it in to honey. Honey is stored in the combs. Since ancient times honey is recognized as the most nourishing and energizing health food. Honey heals the body internally and externally. Honey is rich in nutrients and has easily digestible sugars (such as glucose and fructose), which are quickly absorbed by the body. Honey also contains minerals, enzymes and various vitamins that inhibit the growth of bacteria and make the body to infections resistant. Consumption of honey instantly gives strength and energy.

Royal Jelly

Bes produce Royal Jelly in glands situated at their mouth parts to feed the larvae. This special food makes the young queen larvae grow fast and develops them into queens. Taking royal jelly as its food the queen bee gains double its body weight and can lay up to 2000 eggs each day. Royal Jelly contains fat, proteins vitamins like B1, B2 and has antibiotic properties. Royal Jelly naturally activates the male and female hormones alike and therefore increases potency. Regular consumption of Royal Jelly helps to regenerate the body cells and protects the body against abnormal cell growth such as cancer and infections of joints and muscles. Medical science has proven that Royal Jelly is a very valuable natural food.

Bee Pollen

Bees carry Pollen grains from flowers to their hive in pollen baskets on the hind legs. Besides having highly nutritious, bee Pollen stimulates the forming of antibodies that help to make the body healthy and strong and retains the elasticity to the skin and therefore keeps us younger. Pollen contains vitamin B-complex, vitamin – E, 28 mineral salts essential for our body. Pollen improves body immunity, which helps fight allergies, cold, fever and rheumatism. It regulates the blood pressure as well as cholesterol.

Monofloral Honey

Monofloral honey i.e. from a single type of flower like Sun Flower, Jamun, Cotton, Mustard, Coriander, Lime, Eucalyptus, Rubber, Litchi and Neem etc., may have characteristic flavors and aromas. But, their sweetening power is the same. However, a few floral types of honey, which are very rich in fructose, may taste some what sweeter. There are more than 300 plant species that provides nectar worldwide

Color & Flavor

Honey’s color and flavor vary with its nectar source. The color of honey varies from water white to dark amber. The color of honey is related to its mineral content and is characteristic of its floral source. Light colored honey typically has a mild flavor, while dark colored honey usually has strong flavor.


Honey’s viscosity is dependent upon its water content, temperature and floral source. The viscosity of honey decreases rapidly as temperature rises.Except all physical properties i.e. Color, Flavor, Taste and Viscosity, unifloral and multifloral honey’s have same gross chemical composition.

Honey Preservation

Honey stored in sealed containers can remain stable for decades and even centuries. However, honey is susceptible to changes during storage, it tends to darken and lose its aroma and flavor, when stored at high temperatures. Honey can be kept at room temperature in air-tight containers. Crystallization or Granulation is a natural phenomenon. Storing honey in a refrigerator accelerates the crystallization. If honey crystallizes, it should b kept in sun or in warm water until the crystals dissolve. Do not boil or heat the honey directly over a flame.

Hand Made Soap Making

Handmade Herbal soap preparation has emerged as a potential livelihood option in view of the growing demand for the use of herbal products. Handmade soap differs from industrial soap in that, usually, an excess of fat is used to consume the alkali, and that the glycerin is not removed, leaving a naturally moisturizing soap and not pure soap. Super fatted soap, which contains excess fat, is more skin friendly than industrial soap, though if too much fat is added, it can leave users with a “greasy” feel to their skin.

Handmade soap retains extra glycerin, known to soften the skin naturally. Glycerin is one of the best known humectants (attracts moisture to the skin). It is often extracted during the process of manufacturing commercially made soap, then sold as a valuable by-product. Natural ingredients are rarely used in commercially manufactured soap. If used at all, it is sparingly.

Machinery Required: Reaction vessel SS 304, Frames, Cutting Machine, Trays, Boiler run on bio-diesel/brickets, Manual stamping machine, Manual wrapping machine, water softener and laboratory equipment

Leaf Plate Making Unit
Tribal Jewellery and Pearls Processing

Leaf Plate Making has become an important livelihood option for many of the rural households in the tribal areas of AP, Orissa, MP, Chhattisgarh, Jharkhand and Bihar. Abundantly available forest based products like leaves of beautia superba, beautia monosperma, sheets of arcent palm and bauhinia frondosa (Sal Leaves or Seali Leaves ) are used to make small cups and plates for serving and packaging food stuffs. The existing products made by rural craft men are very poor in physical strength and far from clean and hygienic. There is good scope for self employment for rural and tribal people with the reasonable investment to manufacture improved leaf cup and plate with the help of a machine. The leaf cups and plates prepare can be found in hotels, railway catering and temples. These machines are in use in AP, Orissa, MP, Chhattisgarh and they have been accepted by the traders and consumers due to its cost effectiveness and hygienic consideration and as a replacement to the traditional handmade leaves and other paper products.

Raw Material

With the availability of abundant raw material from forest and agricultural products, cotton or polyester thread and LDPE coated paper or LDPE coated corrugated board or a thin LDPE sheet, polyethylene bags are required to pack the finished goods.

Machinery Required

Leaf stitching machine modal LSM 1, Motor Operated Single Die Machine with Electrical equipment-LPM 3

Methods of making Leaf Plates and Cups

  1. Raw Leaves are collected from the forest by the rural women or men. Leaves are dried in sun or shade (proper care should be taken while the leaves are drying sufficiently, to avoid fungal attack)
  2. Over drying of leaves should be avoided as they become brittle
  3. Initially the leaves are stitched on duly modified stitching machine to get a desired shape and size of (6” diameter to 18” diameter)
  4. LDPE coated paper is placed at the bottom of the same sized thread stitched leaf and pressed at 120 degree c heated die for 5-6 seconds to obtain the desired shape
  5. Before going for production of leaf plates the leaves are to be given treatment of moisture observant up to 30% (a wet gunny wrapper is to be wrapped on the leaves the day before or 2 hrs before going for production) for more flexibility and deep folding. These treated leaves are wiped with a clean cloth to remove dust, dart and are kept in a polyethylene bag to avoid drying before they are used.
  6. Through chick of moisture before packing the finished product leaf plates.
  7. Sheet of arcent palm leaves can also be pressed in the same moulding machine
  8. These leaves are available n particular season in forest areas, during this period the rural woman has to satire maximum quantity of leaves. In case of shortage of raw leaves artificial non biodegradable polyester fill can be replaced to meet the market demand and the livelihood of the rural women.

Advantages of the Technology

  1. Women with minimum participation of men can run the unit in a progressive way
  2. Leaves are stitched on duly modified stitching machine to get a desired shape and size
  3. Manually operated with minimum power consumption
  4. Moulding, trimming, pressing and drying are done in once single operation by pressing the liver of the moulding machine
  5. 300 to 1500 volt of heater is required to generate heating the die. For better quality of production lock the pedal and heat the die for 30 mnts.
  6. Single semiskilled operator and a healer can prepare 250 to 300 plates / cups hour
  7. Heating up to 120 to 150 degree c for about 6-8 sec in sufficient to sterilize the product and does not required any fungicidal spray.
  8. About 60% free micro bacteria are assured
  9. 100% free micro bacteria are assured by adopting chemical sterilization process
Soya Based Value Added Products
Soya Based Value Added Products

Value addition of Soya based products as Enterprises provide another livelihood option in many of the soya growing states in Central India. Soya based products have high superior nutritive value by virtue of its inherent essential amino acids profile. Further, the polysaturated faty acids present in the soya products helps in regualtion of ‘blood pressure’.

The Soya based products being produced can have an excellent demand in market especially in exporting to the Super markets, General Stores etc. Some of the popular soya bean products include Soya Tomato chips, Soya Palak chips, Flour, Chutneys, Soya Besan, Soya Khankra, Soya masala nuts, Soya ready to eat snacks (in different varities), Soya curd chilly, Soya milk and milk products etc.

Soya bean products are becoming increasingly popular throughout the world as a major food because of their nutritive values and health protective properties.

Soya bean products are becoming increasingly popular throughout the world as a major food because of their nutritive values and health protective properties.

Soya Tomato Chips

Ingredients Required Process
Soya Flour
Rice Flour
Red Chilli Powder
Cut the Tomatos in pieces and mixes all the ingredients in hot water and mixes it well. After mixing give a steam for fifteen minutes roll it and cut in different sizes and shapes and dry it.

Soya Palak Chips

Ingredients Required Process
Soya Flour
Rice Flour
Green Chilli
Cut the Palak and green chilli in to pieces and mix all the ingredients in hot water. After mixing well give a steam for fifteen minutes and roll it and cut it in different sizes and shapes and dry it.

Machinery required

Soya Milk and Tafu Machine, Floor kneading and roll making machine, commercial gas stove, weighing machine, round plastic bucket/pail, pulveriser, semi and automatic papad making machine, sealing machine.

RTP Skill Development Training Programmes

Sl. No. Name of the Training Programmes Duration
1 Training Course on Preparation of Neem, Vermi Compost and Vermi wash liquid 3 days
2 Training Course on Mushroom Cultivation and Mushroom Products 4 days
3 Training course on “Cost-Effective Rural Housing construction Technologies” 5 days
4 Training course on “Preparation of Different Soya Products” 4 days
5 Training Course on “ Food Processing by using Solar Energy” 3 days
6 Training Course on “Home Based Products” 4 days
7 Training Course On “Solar Lights Assembling , Maintenance and Management” 15 days
8 Training course on “Leaf plate making” 3 days
9 Training course on “ Conversion of Handmade Paper in to value added products Bags” 4 days
10 Training course on “Preparation Methods of Herbal beauty care Products” 4 days
11 Training Course on Product Development from Tribal Jewellery blended with Pearls and Fashion Jewellery 10 days
12 Training course on “Bee keeping for promotion of livelihood” 5 days
13 Training on Hands on training with Tube light Reglowing technology 3 days
14 Training course on “ Natural Dye Process” 15 days
You are welcome to come back for:
  1. Exposure visits
  2. Skill and Entrepreneurship Development Programmes
  3. Technology Demonstration
  4. Technical support services & Guidelines

Contact Us

Project Director

Rural Technology Park

Centre for Innovations & Appropriate Technologies

National Institute of Rural Development & Panchayati Raj

Rajendranagar, Hyderabad-500 030


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